Water level Indicator With LED's


Nowadays i'm going to speak approximately a completely useful task that I had taken up. It's far known as the Water stage Indicator. These days each person has overhead tank at their homes. However everyone who has a water tank above knows the sort of issues that they face. First off there may be no machine to track the water inside the tank. Then there come a secondary hassle this is when their water pump is started they don't have any concept while it gets filled up and now and again there are state of affairs where the pump keeps on pumping water to the tank and the water begins spilling out from the tank. There is wastage of strength in addition to wastage of water.

Later history

This project that i had taken up is the result of  long hours of studies of labor at the net in addition to lengthy hours of questioning. I had made various versions of the initiatives in advance however at final i came up with this final product. I guess this has been examined and i will now firmly say that the model would paintings perfectly without any complains for years. I'm saying this as i've set up this fashions to various houses in my neighborhood and all are working best with none protection. And indeed this version is well known by means of all who uses it.

The scenario 

The house where I live in has an overhead tank which is about 30 ft from the floor level. I used to be losing interest going up the rooftop to test whether the tank has stuffed or the water stage turned into below to start the pump. I had to try this over and over. Then I sought for a solution. I usually used to think of the opportunities of ways can this hassle be tackled in an digital manner. After years of research and via trial and blunders,  i discovered one and wanted to place anything i have performed out here so that it can be beneficial to someone who has a overhead water tank at their houses.

Step 1: The running principle

Essentially the unit is made up of various sensors acting as a switch. Permit me give an explanation for in a simple manner. What takes place is when you switch on you water pump, the water starts offevolved to get pumped from your underground reservoir  or out of your underground water deliver from the pipes to your water tank. Inside the tank there's a fixed of sensors( to be unique there are 7 sensors), inside the water tank. Just assume them as a transfer, as the paintings of the sensor might be to attach a circuit. I can explain in details in my instructables. So the water begins to get stuffed inside the tank and while the water stage within the tank starts offevolved to rise up, what happens is that the sensors this is installed within the tank starts offevolved to get activated separately indicating the water level inside the tank. And eventually when it reaches to its pinnacle maximum sensor, there will be a visible show as well as a legitimate from the unit indicating that the water has stuffed within the tank and one may be alerted that the tank has been stuffed up and the water pump needs to be switched off saving the electricity invoice as well as over float of water from the tank.

There are four parts in this project:-

(i) The Sensor component
It is usually a fixed guide in the tank having a few nuts and bolt with wires popping out.
(ii) The Circuit element
It contains the brain of the module, in which in all the numerous inputs from the sensors are fed. It is the unit from in which you will get all of the facts of ways tons of water is within the tank.
(iii) The energy deliver
It is the component where in you may be converting the A/C voltage to a regulated voltage of 5V to the Circuit.
(IV) The Buzzer component
It's far answerable for mentioning the sound while the water level fills up inside the tank. It'll additionally be having a speaker or a buzzer to alert.

Step 2: The Circuit

It has severa transistors performing as a transfer and the transfer receives activated whilst the sensors tell them to.

The coronary heart of the circuit is the transistors BC 547. There are total7 transistors within the circuit and every one may be sensing the level of water gift within the overhead water tank. There is one more strength LED without a transistor and this is because this crimson LED will be telling us two things. First off whilst you power the unit it will likely be tracking the power present within the unit and secondly it's also the indicator telling you that there may be no water in any respect gift within the tank. As due to the fact the water stage is underneath the No. 1 (as shown within the circuit) sensor, no LED's can be lights up, however best for the one red LED. Therefore when you switch on your unit if you see most effective one crimson LED lighting fixtures up then you recognise that the is no water gift in the tank and therefore you have to make you water pump on.
Then as shown in the determine i've given all of the LED's in various colour. Beginning from the start is
Pink LED (Indicating no water within the tank as none of the sensors are becoming contact with the water)
Crimson LED ( degree 1, indication very low water inside the tank )
Yellow LED (stage 2, indication of low water)
Yellow LED (stage 3, indication of 1/four of water inside the tank)
Green LED (level 4, indication of half of of water within the tank)
Inexperienced LED (stage five, indication of extra than half of water)
Green LED (stage 6, indication of nearing filling up the tank)
Blue LED(degree 7, complete indication of tank and buzzer comes on)
Now as the water begins to upward thrust up the sensors starts to get in touch with the water and the transistors are activated and there is a waft of cutting-edge inside the transistors making the LED's light up. Right here in among the transistor and the LED there's a modern-day proscribing resistor 470 ohms, the process of the resistor is to exams that the LED does not get over voltage and ruin the LED. The transistor is biased through a 470K resistor with the floor and the sensing part is taken from the collector with a 33 ohms resistor going immediately to the tank. As i've proven within the diagram the signals are drawn inside the inexperienced color. There by you can follow the LED's as they mild up from purple to Yellow after which inexperienced and eventually to Blue making a legitimate.

The Buzzer component

Right here you can add any of the regular buzzers that are simply available within the marketplace and if  it isn't then you can make yourself with a simple 555 IC. I'm giving a small circuit diagram, it is truely simple to make and there are minimal parts. It's far a simple audio oscillator. I have also provide a circuit diagram right here but if you are able to manipulate a buzzer then no need to assemble this circuit.

The strength deliver

This phase contains a transformer changing the mains voltage 220V convey right down to 9V. There is a bridge rectifier containing 4 diodes and making the Alternating present day to Direct modern. After the filtering the voltage is then at once fed to the voltage regulator (7805) with a filtering capacitor. From the regulator IC the output voltage is then again filtered with a capacitor and is fed to the circuit. This incorporates the energy deliver of the device.

This completes the digital part of the task and now i can be going to the sensor part, which is likewise made effortlessly.

Step 3: setting the Circuit in a container

Now time to place the compiled circuit in a small box. Right here i chose a Junction container which can be utilized in electric wiring. It was a super container for this venture.
Now the problematic component is making holes in the plastic junction box so that LED can without difficulty slip thru the holes, also the spacing between the LED's need to be proportionate. First take the box and draw the define in the face of the field. First for the switch you have to make a marking at the lowest right hand facet. Then mark the factors for the LED's. As instructed in advance it need to be proportionate. Now unbend a paper clip and warmth it with a soldering iron and make holes to the marked points as shown in the figure.

Then cut the plastic board for the electricity transfer. After the reduce is made report at the rims so that the reduce is smooth and the transfer can easily suit to into the cut. Suit inside the electricity switch.

Time for including the LED's to the panel. Let's begin with the aid of adding the purple LED from the lowest give up. Then to the Yellow and green and subsequently Blue. This LED's have to be then be soldered to the PCB as proven in the circuit diagram. For me what i did changed into soldered without delay to the PCB underneath the the front panel, because it gave a stable base for the LED's.

Now restore the buzzer simply beside the PCB and supply the connection from the circuit board. Then also repair the electricity supply at the container with the assist of nuts conserving the transformer firmly to the field.

For making a junction of the sensors you may use a cable connector, i used from a used television circuit board as proven. This connector changed into honestly connecting a few wires with the television PCB to the CRT(Cathod Ray Tube of the television), consequently i decided to apply this because it had many pins. I then cut it from the PCB and numbered it from 1 going up until 8. You'll word that there have been two pins greater, so i made this  pins join collectively and made a commonplace point for the sensor going to the tank. The relaxation of the pins beginning from Pin 1 going up till 7 will be for the sensing part in an effort to additionally be related to the sensors of the water tank.

The Nos. That i've assigned for the sensors are as follows:-

1: (level 1) water is notably low and pump desires to be started out
2: (degree 2) water is low
3: (level three)Water stage is 1/4
4: (stage 4) Water degree is 1/2
Five: level five)Water stage is extra than half of
6: (degree 6) Water level is about to replenish
7: (level 7)Water degree has filled up and alarm begins to sound
8: common advantageous Pin

Therefore there are in overall 8 deliver line that has to be taken out from the principle circuit board to the sensor. After trial and error, and a few failed experiments i discovered out that the satisfactory wire for use within the mission would be a Cat5 cable because it has also in total four pairs of wires and this can be blended on this challenge well. As it would be truely not possible to shop for masses of twine and then take it to the tank. It might be messy and there could be all short of wiring hassle.
And one gain in adding a  junction, even as set up is that there may not be any problem for soldering the wires to the circuit at the same time as installation. It would be just plug and play. Consequently after the wire is hooked up to the connector. I warm glued it as it would hold the wires firmly constant to the female connector,and there might not be any dis-connection.

My rented house that i stay is about 3 testimonies excessive and that i needed approximately 15 meters of CAT5 Cable.

That quit's this a part of connecting the cable with the circuit and the following component might be gaining knowledge of to make the sensors for the water tank.

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Step four: The Sensor part
That is the very best a part of the challenge to build. You best need to make  conductors so that once it's miles in touch with water it's going to act as a transfer, as water is a superb conductor of electricity.

We could start with locating a plastic % pipe or you could use any brief of plastic wire casing. In my element what i did changed into make it with twine casing, which are applied at the same time as wiring at houses, however if if you do not have you could make it with a % pipe.
Then your subsequent step is to measure the peak of the tank this is from bottom till the neck and accordingly cut the p.C twine casing. Then mark points 1 to 7 leaving some areas as preferred. As an example you can degree the entire length and divide it by using seven, as because you need to mark seven extraordinary points for sensing seven exceptional water degree.


Your tank height from backside to top is 6 Foot (182.88 centimeter),
You divide 182.88 centimeter by seven 7 then you definately get
182.88 / 7 = 26.12 cm
Consequently you have to mark points at durations of 26.12 cm.

After marking the one-of-a-kind water degree in the % wire casing, discover some three inch nut bolts as proven in parent. Drill the holes to the factors marked preserving the scale of the diameter of the nuts, It ought to snugly in shape to the cord casing. Then as whilst the nut is suited for the casing, do not bolt the nut as such. Make a wire loop as shown after which solder it is outside part so that it could slip to the nut without difficulty.
The period of the wire ought to be stored lengthy (i.E greater than 6 foot for the primary sensor) and the period of the second sensor might be quick then the primary sensor, so this need to be continued till you have got 7 wires with 7 loops with various lengths.

Now positioned the loops of twine to the nuts which you have snuggled to the plastic cord biting and make the wires pop out from every nut that you have built. After all the wires are constant to the nut, you should now add a common line to the wire casing. For the commonplace line you may use a naked wire jogging thru the nut bolts bare touching each different. The distance of the naked wire and the bolt should be saved minimal and in case you need you could solder a small piece of cord to the not unusual line simply beside the nut and bolt as the sensing might be extra. Whilst the water comes in contact with the common twine and the bolt, there might be transfer of modern from the bare twine to the bolt and the sensing is performed.

After connecting all the wires to the bolt there can be a multitude of twine placing from the twine casing, what i did become hot glued all of the wires in a line smart style so that the wires do not fall out of place. All the wires had been then junctioned to a PCB board from which the sensing component could be taken out. That is proven within the parent. Consequently this completes our sensor also.

Now for the final component wherein i could be talking approximately the installation.

Step 5: putting in the tool

The final part is putting in the device to the tank and make it running.

First start with putting in the water sensor inside the overhead tank. As in figure this is the tank that we're going to set up the sensor. Just survey the tank from each side to peer that you can in shape the sensing element. Now take the sensor rod that you have prepared and dip into the tank so that it simply touches the bottom. Now repair the sensor into the water tank through screwing a screw without delay to the water tank in order that the water sensor rod doesn't pass. The sensor rod have to now not move. That finishes the a part of putting in the sensor rod to the water tank. Now to the device that we're going to set up.

Now for installation of the tool you need to discover a suitable vicinity for smooth view of the LED lighting. It should additionally be established in this kind of way that it must be out of attain of the kids. The best region for installing the tool might be within the kitchen of a residence. This is because even as running in a kitchen you could need to show at the water pump and just cooking you would be capable of get the updates from the tank on how lots the water has filled. Simply drill two holes within the partitions and installation it using a L hook. Screw the 2 L hooks to the device and connect it to the wall. It should be firmly constant. Then take the A/C 220V feed from any socket and supply the power to the board.

Consequently finishes the installation of the device and check it via turning the tool on and checking the water stage in the tank. For checking out simply placed the energy on and you'll see some of the LED's sparkling, indicating the extent of the tank, if you see only one of the red glowing then your tank is fully empty and it's time you have to activate your water pump. After the pump is on you may then see after a few time frame that the LED's will start to glow from backside up till the final Blue LED will light up and sound up the alarm.

And now we have efficiently established WATER degree INDICATOR.

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