The Human Female Reproductive System | Functions, Organs, Diagram, Anatomy & more

Human female reproductive system


The female reproductive system consists of the following parts:

Ovaries
Uterus
⇰ Oviducts
⇰ The external genitalia or vagina

(1) ➥ Ovaries

A pair of ovaries inhere/lies within the body cavity of the female. Each ovary is made up of two types of cells, germs cells and follicle cells, production of the ovum.

(a) Oogonia

Germs cells in the ovary produce many oogonia which divide mitotically to form primary oocyte. These enclosed in a bunch of follicle cells.

(b) Meiotic division

The primary oocyte divides meiotically into the haploid secondary oocytes and a first polar body. Second meiotic division in the oocyte progress/proceeds as far as metaphase but is not completed until the oocyte is fertilized by the sperm. In human, only one is generally discharged/released from the ovary at one time.

Ovulation

The release of ovum from the ovary is called ovulation.

(2) ➥ Oviduct or Uterine tube or Fallopian tube

The ovum is then transferred to the oviduct generally called fallopian tube or uterine tube.

(3) ➥ Uterus

The uterine tube opens into the uterus.

Fertilization

The fertilization of the ovum takes place in the proximal part of the oviduct.

Implantation 

The fertilized ovum called zygote enters the uterus where it is implanted (conceived) and undergoes further development.

Placenta

A placenta is established (initiate) between the uterine and foetal tissues for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, waste, nutrients, and other material. Uterus opens into the vagina through the cervix.

(4) ➥ External genitalia i.e. Vagina

Urethra and vagina have independent openings to the exterior (outside).

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