Kidney: Anatomy and Functions, Labeled Diagram & Importance

Kidney: Anatomy and Functions, Labeled Diagram & Importance


  • Kidneys
  • Shape of kidneys
  • Anatomy of kidneys
  • Functions of kidneys

Kidney: Anatomy and Functions, Labeled Diagram & Importance


The human body has a pair/couple of kidneys, which consists of millions of functional units/operating-systems called nephrons. The nephrons have extensive/comprehensive blood supply via the renal arteries. The renal vein collects/accumulate blood from each kidney.


The human kidneys are bean-shaped/fashion/form. Depression in the kidney is called hilus, from where blood vessel leaves and enter the kidney.


The outer/exterior portion of the kidney is called cortex while the inner/interior portion of the kidney is called medulla. On the inner portion of the medulla are renal pyramids. The central/intermediate cavity of the kidney is pelvis.

Anatomy of human kidneys

Functions of kidneys

The function of kidney and blood in clearing wastes is evident from the fact weight of kidney is less than 1% (one percent) of total body weight while receiving 20% (twenty percent) of blood, supplied with each & every cardiac beat.
After filtration of blood and further processing through the tabular system urine is collected in a central cavity of the kidney called the pelvis.


Urine quit/leave the kidney through a duct called ureter.

Urinary bladder

The ureters of both the kidneys drain urine into the urinary bladder through ureteral orifices.


Urine quit the body during urination, from the bladder through a tube called urethra.
In human females, urethra empties near the vagina. On the other hand in human males, urethra empties through the penis in males.

Sphincter muscles

Sphincter muscles near the junction of the urethra and the bladder restrain the urine in the bladder.

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