What is a Neuron and Neuron Functions, Parts, Structure, Types, and more

What are neurons

What is a Neuron and Neuron Functions, Parts, Structure, Types, and more

  • Parts of neuron
  • Functions of neuron
  • Types of neuron
  • Research on neuron
  • Takeaway


Neurons, also term/known as nerve cells, transfer/send and receive signals/messages from your brain. While neurons have a lot in common with other kinds/type of cells, they’re functionally and genetic-makeup/structurally unique.
Specialized projections known as/called axons permit/allow neurons to send/transfer chemical and electrical messages/signals to other cells. Neurons can also get/receive these signals/message via rootlike extensions term/called/known as dendrites.
At birth, the human brain contains/consists of an approximate one-hundred/100 billion neurons. Unlike other cells, neurons do not regenerate/develop/reproduce. They aren’t replaced if/once they decease/die/destroy.
The generation/production of new nerve cells is called/term/known as neurogenesis. While this process/procedure/method isn’t well understood, it may happen/occur in some parts/systems/sections of the brain after the birth of living organisms.
As biologists/scientists/researchers take an insight into both neurons and neurogenesis, numerousm/many/several's are also working/functioning to uncover links to neurodegenerative causes/effects/diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s.

Parts of a neuron,

Neurons alter/differs/vary in shape/make-up, size, and structure depending on their responsibility/mode of working and location/place of existence. However, about/nearly all neurons have III/3/three basic/necessary parts/portions: a cell body, an axon, and dendrites.

Cell body.

The cell body is a part of neuron also term/called/known as a soma, the soma/cell body is the neuron’s core. The soma/cell body send/transfer/transmit genetic information, maintains the structure/genetic makeup of a neuron, and give the energy to start/proceed/drive activities.
Like other same/identical/similar cell bodies, a neuron’s cell body carries/contains a nucleus and generalized organelles. It’s coiled-ed/surrounded by a membrane which both provides protection/protects it and authorizes it to interact with its immediate external environment/surroundings.

Axon                    ;

An axon is a tail-like construction/formation. It is too much/very horizontal/long in make-up/structure. which connects/joins the cell body at a specialized gap or junction called/known as the axon hillock. Many axons are enveloped with fatty substances/matter called myelin. Myelin assists/helps/supports axons to conduct an electrical message/signal. Neurons generally/commonly have only one main axon.


Dendrites are fibrous roots that expans/spread out from the soma/cell body. similar to/Like receiver antennae, dendrites receive/collect and process signals/messages from the axons of other neurons. Neurons can have other/further than one group/set of dendrites, termed/called as dendritic trees. How many they have commonly depended on their functions/role.
For example, Purkinje cells are a special type/category/sort of neuron present/exists in the cerebellum portion/part of the brain. These cells have /completely/well-developed dendritic trees which permit/allow them to receive/accept many/thousands of signals.

Function of neurons

Neurons transmit/send signals/messages operating action potentials. An action potential is a shift in the neuron’s electric potential operate/generate by the group/stream of ions contains -negative or +positive charges in and out of the neural membrane.
Action potentials can generate/operate both synapses i.e.
  • chemical synapses
  • electrical synapses.

Chemical synapses

In a chemical synapse, action potentials affect further neurons via a gap/junction among/between neurons called a synapse. Synapses carries/.consist of a
  • postsynaptic ending
  • a synaptic cleft
  • a presynaptic ending
When an action potential is generated/originated, it's gone/convey with the axon to a presynaptic ending. This triggers/activate the release of chemical messengers called/term/known as neurotransmitters. These materials/substances traverse the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors in the postsynaptic ending of a dendrite.
Neurotransmitters can provoke the postsynaptic neuron, causing it to initiate/originate an action potential of its own. As a replacement; they can restrain the postsynaptic neuron, in which sys/case it does not initiate/originate an action potential.

Electrical synapses

Electrical synapses can just/only stimulate. They happen/occur when II/2/two neurons have come into contact via a gap junction. This gap is very/too much shorter/smaller than a synapse, and comprise ion channels which extends/promote the direct transmission/communication of a +positive electrical message/signal. As a result, electrical synapses are too much fast/rapid than chemical synapses. Nevertheless, the signal/message diminishes from I/1/one neuron to the other neuron, building them less effective at transmitting/transferring.

Types of neurons

Neurons vary/differ in structure/construction, function, and genetic texture. Given the sheer quantity/nomber of neurons, there are thousands/1000 of uncommon/unknown kinds/types, as like there are thousands/1000 of generations of living beings/loving organisms on Earth/world.
In terms of functioning/working, scholars/scientists classify neurons into III/3/three broad and basic categories/types/kinds..:
  • sensory,
  • motor,
  • and inter neurons.

Sensory neurons

Sensory neurons help/assist you with:
  • feel things around you
  • see  things around you
  • hear something 
  • smell
  • taste something around you
Sensory neurons are started/activated by physical and chemical inputs from our environment/living community. Taste, Sound/hear, touch, heat/temperature, and light are other physical inputs. Basically/actually, smell and taste are chemical inputs.
For e.g/example., walking/moving/jumping on hot sand activate/triggers sensory neurons in the soles of your feet. Those neurons send/transfer a signal/message to your brain, which makes you well known/informed of the heat/temprature.

Motor neurons

Motor neurons play a very vital/necessary/important role in the movement, comprising voluntary and involuntary processes/activities. These neurons allow/permit the brain and spinal cord to acquaint with muscles, organs, and glands all over the body of organisms/living beings.
There are II/2/two kinds/types of motor neurons: lower and upper. Lower motor neurons transfer/send messages/signals from the spinal cord to the smooth muscles and the skeletal muscles. Upper motor neurons send/transmits signals/messages b/w./among your brain and spinal cord.
When you eat, drink, taste, for instance, lower motor neurons in your spinal cord send/transmits messages/signals to the smooth muscles present/exists in your stomach, esophagus, and intestines. These muscles contract, which permits/allows food to
transport/carries through your digestive tract.


Interneurons are neural intermediaries present/ exists in your brain and spinal cord. They’re the most ordinary category/type/kind of neuron. They pass messages/signals from sensory neurons and other interneurons to motor neurons and other interneurons. Often, they develop/form complicated circuits that help/assist you to react to external stimuli.
For e.g/example., when you touch some uncommon/specific thing hot, sensory neurons present/exists in your fingertips send/transmit a signal/message to inter-neurons in your spinal cord. Some inter-neurons transfer/convey the message on to motor neurons in your hand, which allows/permit you to get/move your hand away. Other inter_neurons send/transmit a signal/messages to the pain center in your brain, and you feel pain.

Recent research on neuron

While investigation/experimentation has induced/promote our well knowing/understanding of neurons in the last century, there’s also/yet too much we don’t know/understand.
For instance/e.g., until in present/in these days times, scholars/biologists/ researchers imagine/think that neuron creation occurs/happened in adults in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. The hippocampus is relating/involved in remembrance and learning/reading etc.
But a fresh/present investigation/experimentation is calling beliefs about hippocampal neurogenesis into question. After investigating/experimenting hippocampus samples from XXXVII/37/thirty-seven donors, scientists/ researchers think/imagine that young adults produce/generate relatively few new hippocampal neurons.
Though the results have now/yet to be confirmed, they come as an important setback. Many scientists/scholars in the field were hopeful that neurogenesis may assists/help treat fatal causes/disease such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, which produce/cause/leads to neuron damage and also leads to death.

The takeaway

The cells exist/present in the nervous system are called/termed/ known as neurons. They have III/3/three specific portions/parts, including/ a cell body, axon, and dendrites. These parts/portions assists/help them to send/transfer and get/receive chemical and electrical messages/ signals.
While there are millions of neurons and XXXXXXXXXX's/ hundreds of kinds/types of neurons, they can be classified into three/III/ 3 basic groups based upon functioning/working: motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons.
There’s yet a lot/too many/too much we don’t know about neurons and the functions/workings they perform in the development of certain brain situation/conditions.

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